Linux hosting is not much different than any other type of hosting. The main idea behind Linux hosting is the concept of LAMP. This stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP. These are the common and generally the only required aspects of Linux hosting.
Linux is a very widely used operating system. Linux is also a free operating system, which is why it is used quite aggressively. Linux is community based, very compact in size, and is generally the most secure operating system. Linux comes in multiple distributions as well. The most popular used for hosting are Redhat, CentOS, and Ubuntu. These distributions have very easy to use software repositories, are regularly updated, and come pre-configured for hosting use.
Apache is an enterprise class web server. While this web server usually runs on Linux, it can also be run on Windows servers. Apache has been around for quite some time, is commonly known as the most stable web server available.
MySQL is a database server used to store and process SQL queries. MySQL is also cross-platform capable, however, Windows servers usually run MSSQL. MySQL is also a free application that is community supported and updated.
PHP is a programming language used in countless websites today. PHP is an extension of HTML, and can actually parse HTML code; if needed. The main use of PHP is create web content that is dynamic in nature.
Most of the Shared Web Hosting accounts advertised will use some form of Linux. The scalability of Linux allows for multiples of hundreds of hosting accounts on a single server. This makes Linux a very essential part of any web hosting company.